Cocoa and its useful properties
Cocoa powder – this is the most useful product made from cocoa beans, because it does actually dry concentration of nutrients and very little cocoa butter. You heard right, as strange as it might seem. And before moving on to talk about the benefits of cocoa powder, I want to destroy the myth about the unique benefits of cocoa butter.
What is cocoa butter?
Cocoa butter – vegetable fat extracted from cocoa paste by pressing. In turn cocoa paste is a ground nibs the fruit of the cacao tree. Cocoa butter is a fat basis for the production of chocolate and other confectionery products. Cocoa butter has a whitish-yellow color, almost no smell, and at room temperature it is solid and brittle.
There are two types of cocoa butter: natural and deodorized (it is subjected to further processing).
Typically, chocolate production and use deodorized cocoa butter. The deodorization process solves the problem of depersonalization taste and smell of the oil. The essence of deodorization is reduced to cleaning of the oil by high temperature, vacuum and steam distillation. After such processing of the cocoa butter removed saturated hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes, pesticides, ketones and natural essential oils. In short, everything that can be deleted is deleted, so the benefits of such oil even say no. In the production of chocolate using deodorized cocoa butter chocolate acquires specific aroma and taste, it retains most acids and essential oils and the like, it can be concluded that this oil is useful.
I propose to look at the chemical composition of cocoa butter and compare it with other products.
In the chemical composition of cocoa butter are two – and three-acid triglycerides, mixed with fatty acids:
Oleic to 43% (in oil hazelnut 70-80%);
Stearic to 34% (in mutton fat to 30%);
Lauric and palmitic up to 25% (palm kernel oil 47-51%, butter 25%);
Linoleic acid 2% (in sunflower oil 46-60%);
Arachidic . there are only traces (in peanut oil).
We can definitely say that even with vital acids in the composition of cocoa butter, deficiency in the daily diet of the person is not there, because their consumption is offset from the other products of the daily diet.
How to get cocoa powder?
Cocoa powder is produced by grinding cocoa press cake remaining after uprasowania cocoa butter from cocoa mass, powdered state.
Production the process of making cocoa powder consists of three technological operations:
crushing and cooling of the cake;
grinding, rapid cooling and sieving (or air separation) obtained by grinding the mixture for the separation of very finely divided and homogeneous product called cocoa powder;
packing and packaging of cocoa powder.
To get the cocoa powder of good quality is necessary to maintain certain temperature conditions. In premises for the production of cocoa powder by artificially cooling the air temperature should be 8 to 12°C. During grinding in mills or cage mills powder heats up from friction. The particles of cocoa butter melted at elevated temperatures they freeze slowly, and the color of cocoa powder becomes a dull gray. To get good cocoa powder reddish-brown hue, it is necessary after grinding quickly cooling it pulverized particles in an air stream temperature of 10-15°C, and then separating the resulting powder from air.
Cocoa powder contains very few extractives (organic non-protein nitrogenous and nitrogen-free compounds extracted water from animal and plant tissues) and is practically insoluble in water. When mixed with water forms a slurry (suspension of solid particles in water or milk). The quality of the suspension is evaluated by its stability, it depends on the particle size of cocoa powder are in suspension.
Cocoa powder should have color from light brown to dark brown, without a dull gray color, taste and aroma of the cocoa beans, without foreign tastes and odors. The powder must be finely ground, homogeneous, and when rubbed between the fingers should not be felt specks.
To change the shades used cocoa process of alkalization. Alkalinize – the addition of alkali (usually in the form of a solution of calcium carbonate, carbonates of potassium or sodium) to the cacao nibs. The alkali changes the color of the cocoa beans during roasting. The amount and concentration of alkali have a significant impact on the color of the resulting cocoa. Duration of alkalization depends on the time required for complete absorption of the alkaline solution in cacao nibs. This process usually takes about an hour, and during this time the temperature of the mixture can reach 80°C. the duration of absorption is influenced by the applied pressure or vacuum (individually or jointly). Alkalinity affects not only the color but also the aroma of cocoa products.
The effect of the number and concentration of alkali on the color of the resulting cocoa